Gardens of the Palace of Versailles. Gardens of the Château de Chantilly. The « Basin of Apollo » court traité du design PDF the Gardens of Versailles. Parterres of the Orangerie at the Palace of Versailles.
Nouvelle édition révisée et enrichie. Nouvelle préface de Mads Nygaard Folkmann.
« Cet ouvrage pose le premier jalon de ce que l’on pourrait appeler une phénoménologie du design, s’intéressant à la manière dont le design, dans sa capacité à créer les surfaces tactiles et visuelles du monde moderne, affecte, structure et encadre notre expérience quotidienne par la production d effets. […] En d’autres termes, ce qui est important dans le design, c’est sa capacité à produire des effets qui conditionnent l’expérience par la médiation d’objets potentiellement capables d’enchanter notre quotidien. Aborder la phénoménologie du design revient ainsi à s’attacher à comprendre sa relation avec les éléments constitutifs de l’expérience et la manière dont il les transforme. » M. N. Folkmann, Préface.
Gardens of the Grand Trianon at the Palace of Versailles. The Garden à la française evolved from the French Renaissance garden, a style which was inspired by the Italian Renaissance garden at the beginning of the 16th century. In 1536 the architect Philibert de l’Orme, upon his return from Rome, created the gardens of the Château d’Anet following the Italian rules of proportion. The carefully prepared harmony of Anet, with its parterres and surfaces of water integrated with sections of greenery, became one of the earliest and most influential examples of the classic French garden. While the gardens of the French Renaissance were much different in their spirit and appearance than those of the Middle Ages, they were still not integrated with the architecture of the châteaux, and were usually enclosed by walls. The different parts of the gardens were not harmoniously joined together, and they were often placed on difficult sites chosen for terrain easy to defend, rather than for beauty.
The first important garden à la française was the Chateau of Vaux-le-Vicomte, created by Nicolas Fouquet, the superintendent of Finances to Louis XIV, beginning in 1656. The Gardens of Versailles, created by André Le Nôtre between 1662 and 1700, were the greatest achievement of the Garden à la francaise. Louis XIV, illustrated by the statue of Apollo in the central fountain of the garden. The views and perspectives, to and from the palace, continued to infinity. The king ruled over nature, recreating in the garden not only his domination of his territories, but over the court and his subjects. Andre Le Nôtre died in 1700, but his pupils and his ideas continued to dominate the design of gardens in France through the reign of Louis XV.
Nonetheless, a few variations in the strict geometry of the garden à la française began to appear. Elaborate parterres of broderies, with their curves and counter-curves, were replaced by parterres of grass bordered with flowerbeds, which were easier to maintain. Circles became ovals, called rotules, with alleys radiating outward in the shape of an ‘x’, and irregular octagon shapes appeared. The middle of the 18th century saw spread in popularity of the new English landscape garden, created by British aristocrats and landowners, and the Chinese style, brought to France by Jesuit priests from the Court of the Emperor of China.
Louis XIII, became the first theorist of the new French style. His book, Traité du jardinage selon les raisons de la nature et de l’art. Ensemble divers desseins de parterres, pelouzes, bosquets et autres ornements was published after his death in 1638. Henry IV, Louis XIII and the young Louis XIV. Theorie et traite de jardinage, laid out the principles of the Garden à la francaise, and included drawings and designs of gardens and parterres. It was reprinted many times, and was found in the libraries of aristocrats across Europe. A planting bed, usually square or rectangular, containing an ornamental design made with low closely clipped hedges, colored gravel, and sometimes flowers.
Parterres were usually laid out in geometric patterns, divided by gravel paths. They were intended seen from above from a house or terrace. A parterre de gazon was made of turf with a pattern cut out and filled with gravel. Trees or bushes trimmed into ornamental shapes. In French gardens, they were usually trimmed into geometric shapes. Jacques Boyceau de La Barauderie wrote in 1638 in his Traite du jardinage selon les raisons de la nature et d’art that « the principal reason for the existence of a garden is the esthetic pleasure which it gives to the spectator.
The form of the French garden was largely fixed by the middle of the 17th century. A geometric plan using the most recent discoveries of perspective and optics. A terrace overlooking the garden, allowing the visitor to see all at once the entire garden. As the French landscape architect Olivier de Serres wrote in 1600, « It is desirable that the gardens should be seen from above, either from the walls, or from terraces raised above the parterres.